As mentioned in the previous article, the history of chimneys is very interesting, and the way these products have evolved over the years is remarkable. The second part of the history of the chimneys presents the following developments of the chimneys and a number of very interesting aspects about them.
German colonists introduced the "five-plate" model in Pennsylvania at the beginning of the 18th century, and French colonizers introduced something similar in Canada some time sooner.
Close to the 18th century, various inventors appeared, such as Benjamin Franklin, Benjamin Thompson and others who made a series of stoves designs to reduce the amount of heat lost on the chimneys. These designs were made as a result of the lack of wood, which led to a rise in fuel prices. For example, in 1740, Benjamin Franklin invented the Pennsylvania stove to improve the efficiency of heating a home.
From 1785, studies have been carried out on the cause and the ways to solve an old problem, namely to improve the way of smoke evacuation. Benjamin Franklin published in 1787 an article called "Observations on Causes and Methods of Smoke Prevention in the Home," in which important information was given about the stoves he had invented in 1742 and 1771.
The stoves he built were made to burn fuel much more efficiently, reducing the amount of smoke dispersed in the air. The Franklin stove, which was a smaller cast than the Pennsylvania stove, was soon adopted as a way to warm small rooms before the American Revolution.
About the same time that the Pennsylvania stove was made, the French architect Francois Cuvillies created a closed stove with fire holes covered with perforated iron plates, called Castrol stove. It has its roots in the Mediterranean tradition, where food was prepared in a charcoal pot.
Regarding Europe, switching from burning wood to burning coal with soot has made the resolution of the smoke issue even more important. Count Romford took up the initiative and invented a fireplace and a chimney designed to reduce or even completely eliminate smoke pollution that has created problems for so long.
The Rumford fireplace has replaced the stoves used by people for so long and the Rumford chimney, after 1796, could be incorporated into the wall and made the smoke to come out completely on the chimney without penetrating into the room.
The Rumford stove and chimney, as well as the Franklin stove, have strongly influenced the design of the houses from the 19th century until the Victorian era.